Post Page Advertisement [Top]

How to avoid plagiarism when using direct quotation, indirect quotation, and paraphrasing?

Not Crediting a Source

Copying word-for-word from another source (example a) without putting the original words within quotation marks and adding a citation referring to the original source. Even if you are putting the ideas from that source into your own words (example b), you still must credit the source. Here is an illustration of how both these situations work in an excerpt from an imaginary student paper. The words plagiarized from the original author are highlighted. (The following examples use the American Psychological Association referencing style (APA), which is common in the social sciences):

Direct quotation, as you have correctly understood, is when you use the exact words of the author. such instances should be very few in your paper. Moreover, try to avoid using long passages as direct quotes; limit it to one or two sentences. To avoid plagiarism, you should always use quotation marks when you are quoting the author verbatim. You should also use words/phrases such as "stated," "mentioned that," "in the words of," etc. to indicate that you are using the author's exact words. Additionally, you should cite the source.

An indirect quotation is when you use the text with minor grammatical changes. In such cases, you need not use quotation marks, but it is preferable to clarify that you are reporting what another author has stated. You can do this by using the words and phrases mentioned above. You should also cite the source when using an indirect quote.

Paraphrasing is when you rewrite the text completely using your own words. You need not use words such as "stated," "mentioned" etc. for paraphrased text but you should definitely cite the source since you are borrowing ideas from someone else.

Bottom Ad [Post Page]